KrA is an independent palynological consultancy based in Deganwy, North Wales, United Kingdom operated and managed since 1996 by Keith Richards. KrA specialises in palynology and sequence stratigraphy from all parts of the world with specific expertise in the Caspian Sea, Black Sea, South America, West Africa and South East Asia.

Palynology can be applied in all types of marine and non-marine depositional settings, providing geological information such as age and depositional environment of studied sediments. Over the past 20 years, KrA has carried out a large number of stratigraphic studies from around the world for major oil and gas companies as well as for smaller operators, other consultancy companies, universities and research groups.

Analyses are exclusively quantitative and high resolution, aiming to provide detailed information for correlation studies, reservoir modelling and sequence stratigraphic interpretations. Multi-disciplinary stratigraphic studies are regularly undertaken, including palynology, with micropalaeontology and calcareous nannofossil analyses carried out by specialist consultants.

Work in recent years has included numerous geo-technical and geo-hazard seabed studies, providing information for engineering projects such as seabed stability for well placement, communications and pipeline routing, and wind farm installations.

Completed projects include the following:

Colombia: multi-well studies of Cretaceous to Cenozoic age in the Llanos basin, including on-site palynological analyses.

Brazil: multi-well studies on the Foz do Amazonas (Amazon Fan) and provision of palynological services to third party multi-client studies in the Santos, Campos and other petroleum basins on the Atlantic margins.

Alaska: multi-well studies of Late Cretaceous to Paleogene sediments in Prudoe Bay, offshore North Slope.

Canada: high-resolution palynological studies of mid-Cretaceous Athabasca 'Tar Sands'.

Nigeria: routine palynological studies of numerous explorations wells in the Niger Delta region, including co-authorship of a new zonation scheme for the late Miocene to Pleistocene.

Angola: multi-disciplinary studies of deep water offshore region including geo-technical boreholes and seabed surveys.

Egypt: numerous studies of the deep water Nile Delta region including exploration wells and geo-technical studies. On-site palynological analyses for a third party well study from the Gulf of Suez.

Black Sea: palynological analyses of several exploration wells including on-site analyses in the Turkish sector. Many geo-technical studies and several outcrop studies carried out in various localities, including the Romanian, Bulgarian and Ukrainian sectors.

Caspian Sea: many exploration and development wells studied in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. On-site palynological analyses carried out in Azerbaijan, both onshore and offshore. Numerous outcrop and geo-technical seabed studies. Original field work carried out in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Russia resulting in several publications.

Vietnam: routine palynological analyses of several exploration wells, mainly in the Nam Con Son and Cuu-Long (Mekong) basins. Co-presented two advanced palynological workshops (December 2012 and December 2015) for the Vietnam Petroleum Institute, Ho Chi Minh City.

Malaysia: palynological analysis of several exploration wells.

Indonesia: palynological analysis of several exploration wells and study of geo-technical boreholes and seabed surveys.

Australia: palynological study of modern depositional environments of the Lake Eyre region for use in analogue studies for the Caspian Sea.

China: contribution of palynological analyses to third party multi-client study in the Zhu Hai (Pearl River) and Ying-Ge-Hai (Hainan) regions.